You just acquired land and now wondering how to apply for a land title in the Philippines. If you are like most people, you have no idea where to start. The common sentiment is that the process is complicated, confusing, and expensive; hence, most give up on having their lands formally titled.
With the recent legislation on simplifying and improving the land titling process in the Philippines, your dream of having a title to a land that your family and your ancestors have been occupying and cultivating might finally become a reality. In this guide, let us explore the process of applying for a land title both for agricultural and residential lands.
DISCLAIMER: This article has been written for general informational purposes only and is not legal advice or a substitute for legal counsel. You should contact your attorney to obtain advice with respect to any particular issue or problem. The use of the information contained herein does not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the user/reader.
Table of Contents
Laws Governing Land Registration in the Philippines
- 1. Commonwealth Act 141 – The Public Land Act
- 2. Presidential Decree 1529 – The Property Registration Decree
- 3. Republic Act No. 10023 – An Act Authorizing the Issuance of Free Patents to Residential Lands
- 4. Republic Act No. 11573 – An Act Improving the Confirmation Process of Imperfect Land Titles
- Basic Terms You Need To Know About Land Titling
- Judicial Application vs. Administrative Application of Land Title: What Is the Difference?
- Should You Apply for a Land Title Under the Judicial Process or Administrative Proceedings?
- What Are the Different Parts of a Certificate of Title?
- How To Apply for the Land Title of Residential Lands (Administrative Application Under RA 10023)
- How To Apply for the Land Title of Agricultural Lands (Administrative Application Under RA 11573)
- Judicial Application of Land Title in the Philippines
- Tips and Warnings
Frequently Asked Questions
- 1. How much does it cost to apply for a land title in the Philippines?
- 2. How long does it take to process land title in the Philippines?
- 3. I have already migrated to another country and became a citizen there. Can I still apply for a land title in the Philippines?
- 4. Who issues land titles in the Philippines?
- 5. What is the difference between land rights and land title?
- 6. I am currently working abroad. Can I assign someone to process the land titling of my land?
- 7. I inherited an unregistered land from my deceased parents. Can I register it in my name?
- 8. I bought an unregistered land with only a Tax Declaration. Can I apply for land titling and have it registered in my name?
- 9. What is the DENR title?
- 10. Can land be sold without a title?
- 11. Is a Tax Declaration a proof of ownership of land?
- 12. Is the Deed of Sale of a parcel of land proof of ownership?
- 13. Can a land title have two owners?
Laws Governing Land Registration in the Philippines
Before going into the details of the process, let us first discuss some of the essential laws governing land registration in the Philippines
1. Commonwealth Act 141 – The Public Land Act
The Commonwealth Act No. 1411 was approved on November 7, 1936, by the then President of the Commonwealth Government, Manuel L. Quezon. The Public Land Act is the law that governs lands of the public domain and is the foundation of how lands of the Philippines are classified, surveyed, delimited, disposed of, and registered, among others.
Under the law, any natural-born Filipino who owns 24 hectares of land or less and who, or his predecessor-in-interest, has continually occupied and cultivated a tract of agricultural land for at least 30 years may be issued a free patent or a land title. The law also provides a judicial process of land titling that any qualified citizen of the Philippines can avail of.
2. Presidential Decree 1529 – The Property Registration Decree
P.D. No. 15292 was approved on June 11, 1978, by President Ferdinand Marcos, Sr. It amended some of the provisions of Commonwealth Act 141 and provided for the establishment of the Land Registration Commission (now called Land Registration Authority or LRA), including the creation of the Registry of Deeds. The requirements and process of land registration were also amended.
This presidential decree details the procedure for judicial application of land title, claiming ownership over lands subject to the cadastral registration proceedings, and the process of subsequent transfers of land titles to another person, among others.
3. Republic Act No. 10023 – An Act Authorizing the Issuance of Free Patents to Residential Lands
R.A. No. 100233 was approved on March 09, 2010, by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The law authorized the issuance of free patents to lands categorized as residential to Filipinos who, or their predecessor-in-interests, are actual occupants of residential lands for at least ten years.
While C.A. No. 141 provides the issuance of free patents limited to agricultural lands, R.A. No. 10023 now allows the application for free patents to agricultural lands and townsite reservations zoned or identified as residential by the Local Government Unit (LGU) through an appropriate ordinance.
4. Republic Act No. 11573 – An Act Improving the Confirmation Process of Imperfect Land Titles
R.A. No. 115734 as approved on July 16, 2021, by President Rodrigo Roa Duterte. The law amended C.A. No. 141 and P.D. No. 1529 to further simplify, update, and harmonize land registration in the Philippines.
Republic Act No. 11573 removes the deadline for applying for agricultural free patents, the restriction to sell or dispose of the land title within a certain period, shortens the proof of occupancy to 20 years from the previous 30 years, simplifies the requirements for application, and shortens the approval process, among other changes.
For purposes of this guide, we will discuss how to apply for an Original Certificate of Title (OCT) of agricultural and residential land using the administrative and judicial process under the above laws discussed. It is assumed that your land is currently not yet registered or not brought under the Torrens System of land registration, and what you have are only muniments of title (e.g., Tax Declaration, Deed of Sale, Deed of Donation, Extra-Judicial Settlement, or other proof of your claim of ownership).
Basic Terms You Need To Know About Land Titling
While attempts are made to simplify the explanation of the land titling process, some of the technical terms and phrases used herein might be confusing. Here are some of the words used in this article and their meaning.
1. Torrens System
Torrens System (named after Robert Richard Torrens) is a land registration system adopted in the Philippines and took effect on February 1, 19035. In the Philippines, lands registered under the Torrens System are sometimes called Torrens title or titled land. Torrens title is indefeasible. Any person who deals with titled land can safely rely on the correctness and true ownership of the property.
2. Unregistered Land
Lands that are not yet registered under the Torrens System are considered unregistered land. When dealing with unregistered lands (e.g., deed of sale, lease, mortgage), the transaction is only valid between the two parties (e.g., seller and buyer) unless you register the document in the Registry of Deeds.
3. Free Patent
In the Philippines, agricultural lands are distributed or disposed of in four ways. One of which is through the confirmation of an imperfect or incomplete title. The confirmation of your title is done either by
- Judicial confirmation, where you go to court to apply for a land title, or
- Administrative legalization, where you go to an administrative agency to apply for a free patent.
Basically, the government grants a public land (or a free patent) to a private person when that private person, or his predecessor-in-interest, is qualified for a grant under the law. As the term implies, applying for a free patent is administrative in nature.
Previously, only agricultural lands were subject to an application for free patents. Now, residential lands are also covered under Republic Act No. 10023.
In the context of land registration, a predecessor-in-interest is any person who previously holds the right or interest of the land you are currently applying for a land title. For example, the seller is your predecessor-in-interest if you acquire the land through a deed of sale; or your parents and grandparents if acquired it through inheritance.
For residential lands, the law requires that you or your predecessor-in-interest must have been residing and continuously possessing and occupying it for at least ten years. For agricultural land, you have to prove that you or your predecessor-in-interest have continually occupied and cultivated the land for at least 20 years before applying for land title.
To illustrate: even if you just acquired the land last year, you are still qualified to apply for a title, and it will be issued under your name, provided your predecessor-in-interest has had the land for the number of years required.
5. Certificate of Title
The Certificate of Title or land title is the best evidence of ownership over a parcel of land. The Land Registration Authority issues it after a final judgment ordering the registration of the land in judicial proceedings or after the approval of the DENR in the application for a free patent. It contains the property’s location, size, a unique registration number, and the registered owner. The two types of land titles are
- Original Certificate of Title (OCT) – issued when land is first brought into the Torrens System or undergone original registration.
- Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) – issued for any subsequent transfers of the same land covered by the OCT.
The Certificate of Title shall have the original copy, which is safely kept by the Registry of Deeds in its vault, and an owner’s duplicate copy or a mirror copy, which the owner keeps.
Judicial Application vs. Administrative Application of Land Title: What Is the Difference?
Judicial application of land title, also called judicial legalization of imperfect or incomplete title, involves court proceedings. Administrative legalization of an imperfect title is administrative in nature and filed before the DENR.
Should You Apply for a Land Title Under the Judicial Process or Administrative Proceedings?
Depending on your mode of acquisition over the subject land, you are free to apply either in a judicial or administrative process. However, it might be practical to opt for the administrative process as it is simpler and faster. So in all cases where you, or your predecessor-in-interest, have continuously occupied and cultivated a tract of alienable and disposable unregistered agricultural public lands for 20 years, or residential land for ten years, you apply at the DENR.
For all other modes of acquisition (e.g., by prescription, or by right of accretion or accession of abandoned river beds, among others), you may go to court.
What Are the Different Parts of a Certificate of Title?
Every certificate of title shall essentially contain
- Serial Number of the Certificate of Title
- The Registry of Deeds of the province or the city where the title is registered or kept
- The type of the title and its number. If it is an original title, it will be indicated as “Original Certificate of Title” or ‘Katibayan ng Original na Titulo.” Meanwhile, if it is a subsequent transfer from the same land, it will be titled “Transfer Certificate of Title”
- Full name of the owner, civil status, spouse’s name (if married), citizenship, residence, and postal address. If the property belongs to the conjugal partnership, it will be issued in the name of both spouses.
- Signature of the approving officer
- Technical description
- Memorandum Encumbrances
How To Apply for the Land Title of Residential Lands (Administrative Application Under RA 10023)
1. Who May Apply?
You may apply for a residential free patent6 if you possess the following qualifications:
- Must be a Filipino citizen
- Must be (or your predecessor-in-interest) an actual occupant and resident of the land you are applying for
- Must be in continuous possession and occupation of the land under a bonafide claim of ownership for at least ten years prior to the filing of the application
- Your total land holding, including agricultural land, should not exceed 12 hectares
- Depending on your location, the total land area of the land you are applying for a title should not exceed the following:
|Type of Local Government Unit (LGU)||Maximum Area You Can Apply|
|Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs)||200 sq. m|
|Other Cities||500 sq. m|
|First Class municipalities||750 sq. m|
|Second Class municipalities||750 sq. m|
|Other municipalities||1,000 sq. m|
2. What Are the Requirements?
- Duly accomplished application form
- Copy of the DENR-approved plan based on the actual survey conducted by the licensed geodetic engineer or copy of the cadastral map
- Copy of the technical description
- Simplified sketch plan
- Affidavit of two disinterested persons residing in the barangay of the city or municipality where the land is located attesting that you, or your predecessor-in-interest, have been residing and continuously possessing and occupying the land you are applying under a bonafide claim of ownership for at least 10 years.
- Certification from the Regional Trial Court that there is no pending land registration case involving the parcel of land you are applying a title for.
3. Where To File?
The application is filed at the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) of the DENR in the city or municipality where the land is located.
4. Administrative Application of Land Title for Residential Lands: Step-by-Step Guide
Step 1. Gathering and completing all the required documents
Make sure that it is complete, as an incomplete application will not be accepted.
Step 2. Submission of all the documents to CENRO (Community Environment and Natural Resources Office)
Step 3. Initial assessment and acceptance of your application
CENRO will conduct a preliminary assessment of your application to determine if you are qualified and if the documents are complete. If everything is in order, your application is accepted.
Step 4. Posting of Notice of Application
The notice of application will be posted in conspicuous places of the city or municipality (e.g., public plazas, public markets, city/municipal/barangay halls) for 15 days.
Step 5. Investigation and submission of reports
CENRO will conduct an investigation and verification, including ocular inspection and verification of your claims to the land. It has 120 days from the date of filing to decide your application.
Step 6. Submission of reports and recommendations to PENRO (Provincial Environment and Natural Resources)
Upon CENRO’s approval, and if there is no opposition, your application, complete records, and reports will be forwarded to PENRO
Step 7. Approval of the application
PENRO shall have a non-extendible period of five days from receiving CENRO’s recommendation to approve or disapprove the application. Once approved, you will be notified within 15 days.
Step 8. Transmittal of the signed patent to Registry of Deeds
The signed patent will then be forwarded to the Registry of Deeds
Step 9. Issuance of the Original Certificate of Title by the Registry of Deeds
How To Apply for the Land Title of Agricultural Lands (Administrative Application Under RA 11573)
1. Who May Apply?
You may apply for an agricultural free patent7 if you possess the following qualifications:
- A citizen of the Philippines
- Not an owner of more than twelve (12) hectares of land
- Has continuously occupied and cultivated, either personally or through a predecessor-in-interest, a tract or tracts of alienable and disposable agricultural public lands subject to disposition for at least twenty (20) years before the filing of an application
- Has paid the real estate tax
2. Where To File the Application?
You may apply in any of the following places:
- Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO)
- Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO), for provinces with no CENRO
- Through email, courier, or online
- In the Barangay where the titling operation is ongoing 8
3. What Are the Requirements?
- Duly accomplished Application Form
- Application fee of PHP 150
- Documentary stamp tax
- Tax Declaration in the name of the applicant. If the Tax Declaration is not in the name of the applicant, any of the following:
- Deed of Sale
- Extrajudicial Settlement of Estate
- Waiver of Rights
- Deed of Donation or other forms of documents proving ownership
- Clearance from the Land Registration Authority (LRA) – may be submitted within 90 calendar days from filing the application. Exemption: LRA clearance is waived if the subject lot is covered by the cadastral subdivision plan
- Copy of the approved survey plan/cadastral map
- Technical Description
- Alienable and Disposable (A&D) Agricultural Land Certification
Note: Requirement numbers 6, 7, and 8 are obtained from CENRO/PENRO
4. Administrative Application of Land Title for Agricultural Lands: Step-by-Step Guide
Step 1. Gathering and completing all your requirements
Visit CENRO for inquiry as you need to get some of the requirements (e.g., survey plan/cadastral map) from their office
Step 2. Submission of all the documents to CENRO/PENRO
Step 3. Preliminary assessment by the CENRO/PENRO
Your application will undergo a preliminary assessment to determine the status of the lot you are applying for, your qualification, and the completeness of your submitted documents.
Step 4. Acceptance of your application by the CENRO/PENRO
If found to be in order, CENRO/PENRO will accept your application
Step 5. Posting of Notice of Application
The CENRO/PENRO will post the notice of application in the city or municipal and barangay building hall where the applied land is located and on the website of the LGU
Step 6. Investigation and submission of reports
The land investigator will investigate and inspect your land to determine your qualification and verify the claims. If in order, he or she will submit a report
Step 7. Endorsement of the Application
The application is endorsed to either PENRO, Regional Executive Director (RED), or the DENR Secretary, depending on the area of the land you are applying for. PENRO will approve if the land is below 5 hectares, RED if at least 5 to 10 hectares, and the DENR Secretary if 10 to 12 hectares.
Step 8. Approval of the signed patent application and transmittal to the Registry of Deeds
Upon PENRO’s approval or receipt of the signed patent from RED or the DENR Secretary, PENRO will transmit the patent to the Registry of Deeds and notify the applicant of the approval and transmission.
Step 9. Issuance of the Original Certificate of Title by the Registry of Deeds
Judicial Application of Land Title in the Philippines
1. Who May Apply?
You may apply for judicial confirmation of the imperfect or incomplete title of either agricultural or residential land if you possess the following qualifications:
- You or your predecessors-in-interest have been in open, continuous, exclusive, and notorious possession and occupation of alienable and disposable lands of the public domain under a bona fide claim of ownership for 20 years.
- You have acquired ownership of private lands by prescription under the provision of existing laws.
- You have acquired ownership of private lands or abandoned river beds by right of accession or accretion under the existing laws.
- You have acquired ownership of land in any other manner provided for by law.
2. Where To File?
The application or petition is filed at the Regional Trial Court, where the land is located. Under Office of the Court Administrator (OCA) Circular No.107-20229 , the following first-level courts can also hear and determine land registration cases where the assessed value of the land does not exceed one hundred thousand pesos (PHP 100,000):
- Metropolitan Trial Courts (MeTC)
- Municipal Trial Courts in Cities (MTCC)
- Municipal Trial Courts (MTC)
- Municipal Circuit Trial Courts (MCTC)
3. What Are the Requirements?
a. Application/Petition for Original Registration
It should be duly signed by the applicant and sworn to before any officer authorized to administer oaths (e.g., notary public).
The petition shall contain the following information:
- Description of the land
- Citizenship and civil status of the applicant, and details of the spouse if married
- Full names and addresses of all occupants of the land and the adjoining owners
b. Other Documentary Requirements
The application/petition shall also attach the following documentary requirements:
- A full-size print copy of the survey plan duly approved by the Regional Technical Director, Land Management Service of the DENR, certified as a true copy by the Branch Clerk of Court. All bearings, distances, and the technical descriptions of the land appearing on the plan must be legible
- A clear copy of the accompanying technical description certified as a true copy by the Branch Clerk of Court
- Copy of the latest tax declaration and/or tax assessment
- Geodetic Engineer’s Certificate on the approved plan or Certification in lieu of Geodetic Engineer’s Certificate issued by the Regional Technical Director concerned
- All other documents/evidence to prove that you, or your predecessor in interest, have acquired the land in a manner prescribed by law.
4. Judicial Application of Land Title: Step-by-Step Guide
Step 1. Gathering and completing all your documents
Given the process is judicial in nature, it is best to secure the services of a lawyer to assist you in completing the documentary requirements to help you draft the petition to be filed in court. This will also ensure that the forms, contents, and evidence to prove your case are complete.
Step 2. Filing of the application/petition in court
The petition, together will all the attachments, shall be filed in the Regional Trial Court or the first-level courts of the city or province where the land is located.
Step 3. Issuance and publication of the notice of initial hearing
Within five days from filing the petition, the court will issue an order setting the date and hour of the initial hearing of your application. The notice of initial hearing shall also be:
- Published in the official gazette and newspaper of general circulation
- Mailed to all persons named in the application and to all concerned government agencies
- Posted in conspicuous places of the province, city, or municipalities
Step 4. Opposition to the application
Any person may oppose the application on or before the date of the initial hearing, or at any time allowed by the court. For example, another person occupying the land you are applying for a title is also claiming ownership, or perhaps they occupy a portion of the land. Naturally, that person will go to court to oppose your application. If no person appears to oppose your application, that is the time the judge will order you to present evidence to prove that you are qualified for a title to the land.
Step 5. Hearing and judgment confirming the title
If the court finds that you have the title proper for registration, it will issue a judgment confirming your title to the land
Step 6. Issuance of Decree of registration and Certificate of Title
If no one appeals, the decision becomes final. The court will direct the Land Reregistration Authority to issue the decree of registration and the certificate of title.
Tips and Warnings
1. Owners’ Duplicate Copy of Certificate of Title should be safely secured all the time
If you lose your copy, you will have to undergo an expensive and tedious process of reconstitution of the title.
Reconstitution of title is a judicial process which means you’ll have to go to court and hire the services of a lawyer to help you file the case.
2. Make sure all the requirements are complete before submitting your application
Incomplete documents will result in a delay in the approval of your title.
3. Patience is required when applying for a land title
This is because the process is sometimes not straightforward, especially if a document is difficult to obtain or there are claimants and opposition to your application.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. How much does it cost to apply for a land title in the Philippines?
For the application for a free patent at the CENRO, the application fee is only PHP 50 plus three pieces of documentary tax worth PHP 15 each.
For judicial application, the total fees payable to the Clerk of Court shall be PHP 2,913 for all applications filed at the first-level courts (MeTC, MTCC, MTC, MCTC); and PHP 5,183 for all applications filed at the RTC. You can access the breakdown of the cost here.
Not factored in are miscellaneous expenses such as notarial costs, photocopying, publication in a newspaper, hiring the services of geodetic engineers and lawyers, and unpaid taxes, among many others, as these costs vary from place to place and the nature of the property.
2. How long does it take to process land title in the Philippines?
Under the administrative application, the CENRO has 120 calendar days from acceptance of your application to process and evaluate your documents; PENRO has five days to approve or deny your application and five days to transmit the approval to the Registry of Deeds.
In a judicial application, the court has five days from receipt of your application to issue an order setting the date and hour of the initial hearing of your application. The initial hearing is not earlier than 45 days but not later than 90 days from the date of the court order. The length of time for the formal hearing of your case will depend upon many factors, such as the court’s schedule and the number of evidence and witnesses you’ll present, among others. From the date the case is submitted for decision, the court has 90 days to issue a decision.
Usually, the time frame in land title applications takes longer when there is opposition; or when your documents are incomplete.
3. I have already migrated to another country and became a citizen there. Can I still apply for a land title in the Philippines?
Yes. You may still be able to apply for a land title provided you are a dual citizen as provided for by Republic Act 9225, otherwise known as the Citizen Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 200310.
4. Who issues land titles in the Philippines?
Land titles are issued either by the Regional Trial Court, the first-level courts, or the DENR after the applicant goes through the judicial or administrative application process.
For subsequent transfers of the same registered land (e.g., by Deed of Sale, Donation, inheritance, etc.), the Land Registration Authority facilitates the issuance of a Transfer Certificate of Title.
5. What is the difference between land rights and land title?
“Rights” is often used when a claimant or occupant of a parcel of land has no formal title over a property. For example, a person who bought unregistered land from another who holds a tax declaration; or a buyer who purchased a real estate on an installment basis. While the buyers do not own a title to the property, they have a right, which could ripen into ownership one day.
A “right” can be conveyed, sold, or transferred to another person.
On the other hand, a land title is conclusive proof of ownership. When a title is issued in your name, the court or the administrative agency has already ascertained that you possess all the qualifications to own the land.
6. I am currently working abroad. Can I assign someone to process the land titling of my land?
Yes, even if you are abroad, you can still apply for land titling by appointing an authorized representative through a Special Power of Attorney.
7. I inherited an unregistered land from my deceased parents. Can I register it in my name?
Yes, you can register the land and have the Original Certificate of Title issued in your name. Your period of occupation and that of your parents, as a predecessor-in-interest, will be added together. You need to submit an Extrajudicial Settlement of Estate (if there are several heirs) or an Affidavit of Self Adjudication (if you are the only heir), along with other requirements to apply for a land title.
8. I bought an unregistered land with only a Tax Declaration. Can I apply for land titling and have it registered in my name?
Yes, you can apply for a land title and have the Original Certificate of Title issued in your name. Your period of occupation and that of the seller will be added together. If you qualify and comply with the requirements, you’ll be able to register land and obtain a certificate of title.
9. What is the DENR title?
A DENR Title or a free patent is the title issued by the DENR under the administrative process of land titling for both agricultural and residential.
10. Can land be sold without a title?
Yes, land can be sold, mortgaged, leased, or any other dealings, even if it has no title or is considered unregistered land. However, the transaction is only valid between the parties (i.e., buyer and seller), unless the seller registers the document in the Register of Deeds of the province or city where the land is located, in which case, the registration serves as a constructive notice to third parties of your right over the land.
Of course, the transaction is still valid even if you do not register the deed of sale at the Registry of Deeds. The purpose of registration is merely to notify other persons, who are not a party to the deed of sale, that a transaction involving the land is recorded. Thus, you may be able to prevent the double sale, or if the same land is sold again to a different person, you will have a better right over the other.
11. Is a Tax Declaration a proof of ownership of land?
No. A Tax Declaration is not a proof of ownership but merely a proof that an individual is paying the real estate tax of a parcel of land.
In one case11, the Supreme Court ruled that tax declarations and receipts are not conclusive proof of ownership or the right to possess the land if there is no other supporting evidence of ownership. Declaring the property for taxation purposes in the applicant’s name for registration does not necessarily prove ownership but merely indicates a claim of ownership. The Certificate of Title is the best proof of ownership over a parcel of land.
12. Is the Deed of Sale of a parcel of land proof of ownership?
No. A Deed of Sale is not a proof of ownership but merely evidence of a transaction whereby two parties entered a contract of sale of a parcel of land. The Certificate of Title is the best evidence of ownership over a property. If you want a Certificate of Title issued in your name, you must go through the judicial or administrative process of applying for a land title.
13. Can a land title have two owners?
Yes, a land title can have two owners. For example, you and your sibling inherited an undivided land parcel from your deceased parents. You become a co-owner of the said land, and both your names could be written on the Certificate of Title. Another example is when the subject property belongs to the conjugal partnership. The title shall be issued in the husband and wife’s name.
- Official Gazette. The Public Land Act (1936).
- Philippine Law and Jurisprudence Databank. Presidential Decree No. 1529: Amending and Codifying the Laws Relative to Registration of Property and for Other Purposes (2022). Manila, Philippines.
- Philippines Law and Jurisprudence Databank. Republic Act No. 10023: An Act Authorizing the Issuance of Free Patents to Residential Lands (2010).
- Official Gazette. Republic Act No. 11573 (2021).
- History of RLA. Retrieved 20 June 2022, from https://www.lra.gov.ph/history-of-lra.html
- Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). DENR Administrative Order No. 2010-12.
- Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (2021). DENR Administrative Order No. 2021-38.
- Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (2019). DENR Administrative Order 2019-08.
- Office of the Supreme Administrator. (2022). OCA Circular No. 107-2022.
- Official Gazette. Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003 (2003).
- Republic of the Philippines, Petitioner, vs. Juanito Manimtim, Julio Umlali, represented by Aurora U. Jumarang, Spouses Edilberto Bañanola, Zenaida Malabana, Marcellino Mendoza, Demetrio Florita Cuadra, and Francisca Manimtim, Respondents, G.R. No. 169599 (Supreme Court of the Philippines 2011).