We all know that a research paper has plenty of concepts involved. However, a great deal of concepts makes your study confusing.
A conceptual framework ensures that the concepts of your study are organized and presented simply and comprehensively. Let this article guide you on how to make the conceptual framework of your study.
Related: How to Write a Concept Paper for Academic Research
Table of Contents
- Watch Video: How To Make Conceptual Framework
- At a Glance: Free Conceptual Framework Templates
- What Is a Conceptual Framework?
- Why Should Research Be Given a Conceptual Framework?
- What Is the Difference Between Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Framework?
- What Are the Different Types of Conceptual Frameworks?
How To Make Conceptual Framework: 4 Steps
- 1. Identify the Important Variables of Your Study
- 2. Think About How the Variables Are Related
- 3. Analyze and Determine Other Influencing Variables
- 4. Create a Visual Diagram or a Model
- 5. Explain Your Conceptual Framework in Narrative Form
- Conceptual Framework in Quantitative Research
- Conceptual Framework in Qualitative Research
- Conceptual Framework Examples
- Tips and Warnings
- Frequently Asked Questions
Watch Video: How To Make Conceptual Framework
At a Glance: Free Conceptual Framework Templates
Too busy to create a conceptual framework from scratch? No problem. We’ve created templates for each type of conceptual framework so you can start on the right foot. All you need to do is enter the details of the variables. Feel free to modify the design according to your needs. To learn more about the conceptual framework, please proceed to the main article below.
Conceptual Framework Template #1: Independent-Dependent Variable Model
Conceptual Framework Template #2: Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model
Conceptual Framework Template #3: Concept Map
What Is a Conceptual Framework?
A conceptual framework shows the relationship between the variables of your study. It includes a visual diagram or a model that summarizes the concepts of your study and a narrative explanation of the model presented.
Why Should Research Be Given a Conceptual Framework?
Imagine your study as a long journey with the research result as the destination. You don’t want to get lost in your journey because of the complicated concepts involved. This is why you need to have a guide. The conceptual framework keeps you on track by presenting and simplifying the relationship between the variables. This is usually done through the use of illustrations that are supported by a written interpretation.
Also, people who will read your research must have a clear guide to the variables in your study and where the research is heading. By looking at the conceptual framework, the readers can get the gist of the research concepts without reading the entire study.
Related: How to Write Significance of the Study (with Examples)
What Is the Difference Between Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Framework?
|Conceptual Framework||Theoretical Framework|
|Gives an overview of the concept of the study using empirical findings from other literature.||Purely based on existing theories.|
|The research problem is backed up by existing knowledge regarding things the researcher wants us to discover about the topic.||The research problem is supported using past relevant theories from existing literature.|
|Based on acceptable and logical findings.||It is established with the help of the research paradigm.|
|You can develop this through the specific concept the researcher uses in the study.||A general set of ideas and theories is essential in writing this area.|
|It highlights the fundamental concepts characterizing the study variable.||It gives emphasis on the historical background and the structure to fill in the knowledge gap.|
Both of them show concepts and ideas of your study. The theoretical framework presents the theories, rules, and principles that serve as the basis of the research. Thus, the theoretical framework presents broad concepts related to your study. On the other hand, the conceptual framework shows a specific approach derived from the theoretical framework. It provides specific variables and shows how these variables are related.
Let’s say your research is about the Effects of Social Media on the Political Literacy of College Students. You may include in your theoretical framework some theories related to political literacy, such as this paper. Based on this paper, political participation and awareness determine political literacy.
For the conceptual framework, you may state that the specific form of political participation and awareness you will use for the study is the engagement of college students on political issues on social media. Then, through a diagram and narrative explanation, you can show that using social media affects the political literacy of college students.
What Are the Different Types of Conceptual Frameworks?
The conceptual framework has different types based on how the research concepts are organized1.
In this type of conceptual framework, the phenomena of your study are grouped into categories without presenting the relationship among them. The point of this conceptual framework is to distinguish the categories from one another.
2. Visual Presentation
In this type of conceptual framework, the relationship between the phenomena and variables of your study is presented. Using this conceptual framework implies that your study provides empirical evidence to prove the relationship between variables. This is the type of conceptual framework that is usually used in research studies.
3. Mathematical Description
In this conceptual framework, the relationship between phenomena and variables of your study is described using mathematical formulas. Also, the extent of the relationship between these variables is presented with specific quantities.
How To Make Conceptual Framework: 4 Steps
1. Identify the Important Variables of Your Study
There are two important variables that you must identify in your study: the independent and the dependent variables.
An independent variable is a variable that you can manipulate. It can affect the dependent variable. Meanwhile, the dependent variable is the resulting variable that you are measuring.
You may refer to your research question to determine your research’s independent and dependent variables.
Suppose that your research question is: “Is There a Significant Relationship Between the Quantity of Organic Fertilizer Used and the Growth Rate of the Plant?” The independent variable of this study is the quantity of organic fertilizer used, while the dependent variable is the growth rate of the plant.
2. Think About How the Variables Are Related
Usually, the variables of a study have a direct relationship. If a change in one of your variables leads to a corresponding change in another variable, then they might have this kind of relationship.
However, note that having a direct relationship between variables does not mean that they already have a cause-and-effect relationship2. It takes statistical analysis to prove causation between variables.
Using our example earlier, the quantity of organic fertilizer may have a direct relationship with the growth rate of the plant. However, we are not yet certain that the quantity of organic fertilizer is the sole reason for the changes in the growth rate of the plant.
3. Analyze and Determine Other Influencing Variables
Consider analyzing if there are other variables that can affect the relationship between your independent and dependent variables3.
4. Create a Visual Diagram or a Model
Now that you’ve identified the variables and their relationship, you may create a visual diagram that summarizes them.
Usually, shapes such as rectangles, circles, and arrows are used for the model. There are different ways in which you may create a visual diagram or model for your conceptual framework. The three most common models are the independent-dependent variable model, the input-process-output (IPO) model, and concept maps.
a. Using the Independent-Dependent Variable Model
You may create this model by writing the independent and dependent variables inside rectangles. Then, insert a line segment between them, connecting the rectangles. This line segment indicates the direct relationship between these variables.
Shown below is a visual diagram based on our example about the relationship between organic fertilizer and the growth rate of a plant.
b. Using the Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model
If you want to give emphasize to your research process, the input-process-output model is the appropriate visual diagram for your conceptual framework.
To create your visual diagram using the IPO model, follow these steps:
- Determine the inputs of your study. Inputs are the variables you will use to arrive at your research result. Usually, your independent variables are also the inputs of your research. Let’s say your research is about the Level of Satisfaction of College Students with the Use of Google Classroom as an Online Learning Platform. You may include in your inputs the profile of your respondents and the curriculum used in the online learning platform.
- Outline your research process. Using our example above, the research process should be like this: Data collection of student profiles → Administering questionnaires → Tabulation of students’ responses → Statistical analysis of data.
- State the research output. Indicate what you are expecting after you conduct the research. In our example above, the research output is the assessed level of satisfaction of college students with the use of Google Classroom as an online learning platform.
- Create the model using the determined input, process, and output of the research.
Presented below is the IPO model for our example above.
c. Using Concept Maps
If you think the two models presented previously are not enough to summarize the concepts of your study, you may use a concept map for your visual diagram.
A concept map is an effective visual diagram if you have multiple variables that affect one another. Let’s say your research is about Coping with the Remote Learning System: Anxiety Levels of College Students. Presented below is the concept map for the research’s conceptual framework:
5. Explain Your Conceptual Framework in Narrative Form
Provide a brief explanation of your conceptual framework. State the important variables, their relationship, and the research outcome.
Using the same example about the relationship between organic fertilizer and the growth rate of the plant, we can come up with the following explanation to accompany the conceptual framework:
Figure 1 shows the Conceptual Framework of the study. The quantity of the organic fertilizer used is the independent variable, while the growth of the plant is the research’s dependent variable. These two variables are directly related based on the research’s empirical evidence.
Conceptual Framework in Quantitative Research
You can create your conceptual framework by following the same steps discussed in the previous section. Note, however, that quantitative research has statistical analysis. Thus, you may now use arrows to indicate a cause-and-effect relationship in your model. An arrow implies that your independent variable caused the changes in your dependent variable.
Usually, for quantitative research, the Input-Process-Output model is used as a visual diagram. Here is an example of a conceptual framework in quantitative research:
Research Topic: Level of Effectiveness of Corn (Zea mays) Silk Ethanol Extract as an Antioxidant
Conceptual Framework in Qualitative Research
Again, you can follow the same step-by-step guide discussed previously to create a conceptual framework for qualitative research. However, note that you should avoid using one-way arrows as they may indicate causation. Qualitative research is not able to prove causation since it uses only descriptive and narrative analysis to relate variables.
Here is an example of a conceptual framework in qualitative research:
Research Topic: Lived Experiences of Medical Health Workers During Community Quarantine
Conceptual Framework Examples
Presented below are some examples of conceptual frameworks.
Research Topic: Hypoglycemic Ability of Gabi (Colocasia esculenta) Leaf Extract in the Blood Glucose Level of Swiss Mice (Mus musculus)
Figure 1 presents the Conceptual Framework of the study. The quantity of gabi leaf extract is the independent variable while the blood glucose level of the Swiss mice is the dependent variable of the study. Through the empirical evidence and statistical analysis presented in this study, a direct relationship between these variables is established.
Research Topic: Level of Effectiveness of Using Social Media in the Political Literacy of College Students
Figure 1 shows the Conceptual Framework of the study. The input is the profile of the college students according to sex, year level, and the social media platform being used. The research process includes administering the questionnaires, tabulation of students’ responses, and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation. The output is the level of effectiveness of using social media in the political literacy of college students.
Research Topic: Factors Affecting the Satisfaction Level of Community Inhabitants
Figure 1 presents a visual illustration of the factors that affect the satisfaction level of community inhabitants. As presented, environmental factors, societal factors, and economic factors influence the satisfaction level of community inhabitants. Each factor has its indicators which are considered in this study.
Tips and Warnings
- Keep it simple. Avoid using fancy illustrations or designs when creating your conceptual framework.
- Allot a space for feedback. This is to show that your research variables or methodology might be revised based on the feedback from the research panel. Below is an example of a conceptual framework with a spot allotted for feedback.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. How can I create a conceptual framework in Microsoft Word?
First, click the Insert tab and select Shapes. You’ll see a wide range of shapes to choose from. Usually, rectangles, circles, and arrows are the shapes used for the conceptual framework.
Next, draw your selected shape in the document.
Insert the name of the variable inside the shape. You can do this by pointing your cursor to the shape, right-clicking your mouse, selecting Add Text, and typing in the text.
Repeat the same process for the remaining variables of your study. Should you need arrows to connect the different variables, you can insert one by going to the Insert tab, then Shape, and finally, Lines or Block Arrows, depending on the style of arrow you prefer.
2. How to explain my conceptual framework in defense?
If you have used the Independent-Dependent Variable Model in creating your conceptual framework, start by telling what your research’s variables are. Afterward, explain the relationship between these variables. Example: “Using statistical/descriptive analysis of the data we have collected, we are going to show how the <state your independent variable> exhibits a significant relationship to <state your dependent variable>.”
On the other hand, if you have used an Input-Process-Output Model, start by explaining the inputs of your research. Then, tell them about your research process. You may refer to the Research Methodology in Chapter 3 to accurately present the process of your research. Lastly, explain what your research outcome is.
Meanwhile, if you have used a concept map, make sure that you understand the idea behind the illustration. Discuss how the concepts are related and highlight the research outcome.
3. In what stage of research is the conceptual framework written?
The conceptual framework is in Chapter 2 of the research study following the Review of Related Literature.
4. What is the difference between a Conceptual Framework and Literature Review?
The Conceptual Framework is a summary of the concepts of your study where the relationship of the variables is presented. On the other hand, Literature Review is a collection of published studies and literature related to your study.
Suppose your research is about the Hypoglycemic Ability of Gabi (Colocasia esculenta) Leaf Extract on Swiss Mice (Mus musculus). In your conceptual framework, you will create a visual diagram and a narrative explanation presenting the quantity of gabi leaf extract and the mice’s blood glucose level as your research variables. On the other hand, for the literature review, you may include this study and explain how this is related to your research topic.
5. When do I use a two-way arrow for my conceptual framework?
You’re going to use a two-way arrow in your conceptual framework if the variables of your study are interdependent. If variable A affects variable B and variable B also affects variable A, you may use a two-way arrow to show that A and B affect each other.
Suppose your research is about the Relationship Between Students’ Satisfaction Levels and Online Learning Platforms. Since students’ satisfaction level determines the online learning platform used by the school and vice versa, then these variables have a direct relationship. Thus, you may use two-way arrows to indicate that the variables directly affect each other.
- Conceptual Framework – Meaning, Importance and How to Write it. (2020). Retrieved 27 April 2021, from https://afribary.com/knowledge/conceptual-framework/
- Correlation vs Causation. Retrieved 27 April 2021, from https://www.jmp.com/en_ph/statistics-knowledge-portal/what-is-correlation/correlation-vs-causation.html
- Swaen, B., & George, T. (2022, August 22). What is a conceptual framework? Tips & Examples. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/conceptual-framework/
14 thoughts on “How To Make Conceptual Framework (With Examples and Templates)”
Hi. What is the difference between dotted lines, dotted lines with a single arrow, and lines with two-headed arrows in conceptual framework? What symbol do you use to denote “significant difference”?
Thank you for your swift response.
Can anyone suggest a conceptual framework that focuses on awareness
I tried using the concept of HBM (Health Belief Model) but the panelist didn’t want the idea because it didn’t align with our study.
So can anyone suggest a concept that deals with awareness
Thank you in advance.
PS. Our deadline for revision is near hehe
thank you. this is very helpful. God bless.
Thanks for the info. God Bless..
thank u for this 🙂
Very helpful guiding content. Thank you so much!
Thanks a lot. Very helpful.
This is very helpful! Thank you so much for this.
How to explain the first example of the qualitative research? Which is entitled with “Lived Experiences of Medical Health Workers During Community Quarantine”
thanks so much.
bRIGHT IDEA, vERY hELPFUL